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Sie sind hier: Startseite Das Institut Bereiche Geochemie/Petrologie Arbeitsgruppen Geochemie Mitarbeiter Prof. Dr. Ambre Luguet

Prof. Dr. Ambre Luguet

Ambre Luguet







Poppelsdorfer Schloss
Room 2.101
Phone: +49 228 73-6816
E-Mail: ambre.luguet [at]


Scientific Career and Education



Professor (W2) in Isotope Geochemistry, Universität Bonn, Germany


Tenure-track Professor (W2) in Isotope Geochemistry, Universität Bonn, Germany


Assistant Professor (A13-akademische Rätin), Steinmann Institut, Universität Bonn, Germany


Part-Time Lecturer, University of Durham, UK


Assistant Professor, Magmatic Metallogeny Chair, UQAC, Canada


Marie Curie Postdoctoral Research Fellow,  University of Durham, UK


NERC Postdoctoral Research Assistant, University of Durham, UK


Carnegie Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Carnegie Institution of Washington, USA


Assistant Lecturer, MNHN, Paris.



Assistant-Exhibition "Diamonds", MNHN, Paris.



Ph.D., in Geochemistry and Mineralogy - Summa cum Laude
Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris.


DEA Methodes quantitatives et modelisation des bassins sédimentaires - Grade B
IFP, Univ. Paris VI & VII, EMP, IPGP, MNHN.


DEUG B, Licence and Maîtrise Earth Sciences - Grade B
Universite des Sciences & Techniques, Nantes, France.


Research Interest

  • Accretionary and Differentiation processes of the terrestrial planets
  • Chemical Evolution of the Earth.
  • Chemical Exchange/Interactions between the different Earth’s reservoirs ; from the core to the atmosphere.
  • Geochemistry of chalcogens (S, Se, Te) and highly siderophile elements (HSE : Os. Ir, Ru, Rh, Pt, Pd, Au, Re).
  • Applications of Pt-Os and Re-Os isotopic systems to geo and cosmochemistry.
  • Development of analytical methods for precise trace element and isotope ratio measurements


European, National, Privately-Funded Research Grants and Post-doctoral Fellowships

  • DFG Research Grant- LU1603/7-1 (2018-2021) «Chalcophile and highly siderophile element behaviour in subduction zones: The mantle wedge persperctive»  227900€(PI).
  • DFG Research Grant- LU1603/5-1 (2017-2018) «Platinum enrichment processes in ultramafic massifs of the Uralian Platinum belt, Russia» 4900 € (co-PI with C. Ballhaus (Univ. Bonn) and R. Wirth (GFZ Postdam)).
  • DFG Research Grant-LU1603/3-1 (2015-2018) «Chalcophile and highly siderophile element behaviour in subduction zones: implication for global recycling of crustal 186Os-187Os signatures» 175 850 € (PI).
  • DFG-INSA (Indian National Science Academy) Visiting Research Grant-LU1603/4-1 (2015) « Highly Siderophile Elements distribution and 187Os isotopic systematics of the mantle sequence of the Indo-Myanmar ophiolite belt, Northeastern India». Collaboration with Dr. Maibam Bidyananda, Manipur University- 7995
  • ERC Starting Grant (Consolidator)-Proposal FP7-258658 (2010-2016) «Early Earth Dynamics: Pt-Re-Os isotopic constraints on Hadean-Early Archean mantle evolution»- 1 307 106 € (PI).
    ERC Research Team:

Dr. Jude Coggon (Postdoc 2011-2015-Now at Southampton Uni),

Dr. David van Acken (postdoc 2013-2015, now at iCRAG, University College Dublin),

Dr. Ashlea Wainwright (PhD 2011-2015, Postdoc Mar-Oct 2015, now at Université Libre de Bruxelles).

  • DFG Research Grant-LU1603/1-1 (2009-2012) «Re-Os dating of micrometric Os-rich alloys and sulfides in mantle xenoliths from the Slave Craton : implication for craton formation and the Early Earth evolution »-176 000 € (PI).
  • Marie Curie Postdoctoral Research Fellowship-MCF EIF-009752 (2005-2007) « Degasing systematics of Highly Siderophile Elements from magmas: New constrains on the convecting mantle, and the origins of global HSE anomalies in sedimentary rocks. »-111 000 €.
  • Carnegie Institution of Washington, Postdoctoral Research Fellowship (2002-2004)


Conference/Session Convened

  • Organiser of GeoBonn 2018 (DGGV, DMG, PalGes, DGG) with Nikolaus Froitzheim, Robin Strack, Thomas Martin and Gösta Hoffmann
  • Goldschmidt conference Sessions: “Melting, Overprinting, recycling: The making of Earth’s mantle over 4.5 billions of years”, Goldschmidt Conference, Paris (France), Aug 2017; «Siderophile and Chalcophile Element Systematics in Terrestrial Processes» session, Goldschmidt Conference, Florence (Italy), Aug 2013; «Peridotites and Eclogites: compositions, textures and micro-scale mineralogy» session, Goldschmidt Conference, Knoxville (USA), June 2010.
  • Lead Organiser of 3rd international workshop on «Highly Siderophile Element Geochemistry», July 2006, Durham UK.
  • Lead Guest Editor of the Chemical Geology Special Issue «Geochemistry of Highly Siderophile Elements », Vol 248, February 2008.
  • Goldschmidt Conference themes: ''The core and the Mantle'' with Helen Williams and Bernie Wood, Goldschmidt 2018 Boston. '' Earth's lithosphere formation and evolution from Hadean to Modern'' with Rajdeep Dasgupta and Tony Kemp, Goldschmidt 2020 Haiwaii.



Recipient of the “Lehrpreis 2017” (Teaching Price) of the University of Bonn

Recipient of the “Lehrpreis 2014” (Teaching Price) of the University of Bonn

BSc Module:

  • -Analytical geochemistry (module B56) (1h practical exercise/week)-discontinued in 2015

MSc Modules:

  • Radiogenic Isotope Geochemistry (module M45) (2h lecture+2h exercise/week)
  • Volcanology (module M36) (3h lecture/week + 2 day excursion)
  • Cosmochemistry and Planetology (module M48) (3h lecture+ 1h reading seminar + 1h student presentation/week)


  • French Massif Central (10 days, run yearly-leader)
  • South Italian Volcanoes (10 days, run yearly-leader)
  • Eifel Volcanic Province (2 days, run yearly-leader)
  • Tanzania-Kenya (20 days-Mars 2017, co-leading with Dr. Schuth, Hannover University)
  • Kaiserstuhl Volcanic Field (2 days-June 2015, co-leading with Prof. C. Ballhaus)
  • Iceland (3 weeks-July/Aug 2015, co-leading with Dr. Schuth, Hannover University)
  • Syros (10 days-May 2015, co-leading with Prof. C. Ballhaus)
  • Bulgaria (10 days-March 2015, co-leading with Prof. N. Froitzheim)
  • Java-Bali (3 weeks-Aug 2008, co-leading with Dr. Schuth & Dr. König)
  • Cyprus (1 week-Jan 2005, tutor, excursion led by Prof. D.G. Pearson and Dr. G. Nowell, Durham University)

Short Courses

  • Isotope Geochemistry (University of Vienna, Nov 2012, 20h lecture)
  • Chalcophile and Highly Siderophile Element (HSE) Geochemistry (GSA & GS, Scripps Institution, Dec 2015, 2x1h lecture)
    • (i) Chalcophile elements in the Earth’s mantle
    • (ii) HSE and Os isotope signatures in the non-cratonic basalt-hosted peridotite xenoliths:
  • Melting and fluid/melt-rock reactions in the mantle (Winter School- University of Pavia, Italy, 2x1h lecture)
    • (i) HSE-Se and Te could be used as tracers of mantle processes
    • (ii) Mineral Scale to Whole-rock Signatures of Os isotopes in mantle rocks


Peer-Reviewed Publications

*Publications of the ERC project

[55] Schulz T., Sackl F., Fragner E., Luguet A., van Acken D., Abate B., Badjukov D.D., Koeberl C. (2020). The Zhamanshin impact structure, Kazakhstan: A comparative geochemical study of target rocks and impacts glasses. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 268, 209-229.

[54] Luguet A., Nowell G.M., Pushkarev E., Ballhaus C., Wirth R., Schreiber A. and Gottman, I. (2019). 190Pt-186Os geochronomter reveals open system behaviour of 190Pt-4He isotope system. Geo. Persp. Lett. 11, 44-48.

[53] Ozdemir S., Schulz T., van Acken D., Luguet A., Reimold W.U., and Koeberl C. (2019). Meteoritic highly siderophile element and Re-Os isotope signatures of Archean spherule layers from the CT3 drill core, Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa. Meteoritics & Planetary Science (in press), DOI: 10.1111/maps.13234

[52] Luguet A., and Pearson D.G. (2019). Dating mantle peridotites using Re-Os isotopes: The complex message from whole rocks, base metal sulfides and platinum group minerals. American Mineralogist (in press). DOI: 10.2138/am-2019-6557

[51] Lorand J.-P., Pont S., Chevrier V.F., Luguet A., Zanda B., Hewins R. (2019) Petrogenesis of martian sulfides in the Chassigny meteorite. American Mineralogist 103(6), 872-885.

[50] Liu J., Brin L.E., Pearson D.G., Bretschneider L., Luguet A., van Acken D., Kjarsgaard B.A., Riches A., Miskovic A. (2018) Diamondiferous Paleoproterozoic mantle rrots beneath Arctic Canada: A study of mantle xenoliths from Parry Peninsula and Central Victoria Island, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 239, 284-311.

[49] JaquesA.L., Luguet A., SmithC.B., PearsonD.G., YaxleyG.M. & KobussenA. (2018). Nature of the mantle beneath the Argyle AK1 lamproite pipe: constraints from mantle xenoliths, diamonds and lamproite geochemistry". in A.T. Davy, C.B. Smith, H. Helmstaedt, A.L. Jaques, J.J. Gurney (ed.), Geoscience and Exploration of the Argyle, Bunder, Diavik, and Murowa Diamond Deposits, Society of Economic Geologists, USA, pp. 119-143.

[48] Tassara S., González-Jiménez J.-M., Reich M., Saunders J.E., Luguet A., Morata D., Grégoire M., van Acken D., Schilling M., Barra F., Nowell G.M., Corgne A. (2018) Highly siderophile elements mobility in the subcontinental lithospheric mantle beneath southern Patagonia. Lithos 314-315, 579-596.

[47]* Bragagni A., van Acken D., Fonseca R.O.C., Speelmanns I.M., Wainwright A.N., Heuser A., Nowell G.M., Luguet A. (2018) Re-Os and HSE in individual base metal sulfide grains: Evaluating micro-analytical procedures using a sulfide reference material. Chem Geol. 493, 426-440.

[46]* Bragagni A., Luguet A., Fonseca R.O.C., Pearson D.G., Lorand J.-P., Nowell G.M., Kjarsgaard B.A. (2017) The geological record of base metal sulfides in the cratonic mantle: A microscale 187Os/188Os study of peridotite xenoliths from Somerset Island, Rae Craton (Canada). Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 216, 264-285.

[45] Bidyananda M., Foley S., Luguet A., Jacob D.E., Singh T.B., Ray D., Panda D.K., Keppler R (2017). Characterisation of chromites, chromite hosted inclusions of silicates and metal alloys in chromitites from the Indo-Myanmar ophiolite belt of Northeastern India, Ore Geology Review, DOI: 10.1016/j.oregeorev.2017.05.032

[44] Tappe S., BrandN., Stracke A., van Acken D., Liu C.-Z., Strauss H., Wu F.-Y., Luguet A., Mitchell R.H. (2017). Plates or Plumes in The Origin of Kimberlites: Insights From U/Pb Age and Sr-Nd-Hf-Os Isotope Analysis, Renard And Wemindji Clusters, Superior Craton (Canada). Chem. Geol. 455, 57-83.

[43] Schulz T., Koeberl K., Luguet A., van Acken D., Mohr-Westheide T., Özdemir S., Reimold W. U. (2017) New constraints on the Paleoarchean meteorite bombardment of the Earth - Geochemistry and Re-Os isotope signatures of spherule layers in the BARB5 ICDP drill core from the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 211, 322-340.

[42] Marshall E, Lassiter J.C., Barnes J.D., Luguet A., Lissner M. (2017). Mantle melt production during the 1.4 Ga Laurentian magmatic event: Isotopic constraints from Colorado Plateau mantle xenoliths, Geology 45, 519-522.

[41]* van Acken D., Luguet A., Pearson D.G., Nowell G.M., Fonseca R.O.C., Nagel T.J., Schulz T. (2017). Mesoarchean melting and Neoarchean to Paleoproterozoic metasomatism during the formation of the cratonic mantle keel beneath West Greenland. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 203, 37-53

[40]* Creech J.B., Baker J., Handler M.R., Lorand J.-P., Storey M., Wainwright A.N., Luguet A., Moynier F., Bizarro M. (2017). Late accretion history of the terrestrial planets inferred from platinum stable isotopes. Geochem. Persp. Let. 3, 94-104.

[39]* Wainwright A.N, Luguet A., Schreiber A, Fonseca R.O.C., Nowell G.M., Lorand J.-P. and Janney P.E. (2016). Nanoscale variations in 187Os isotopic compositions and HSE systematics in a Bultfontein peridotite. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 447, 61-70.

[38] Schulz T., Luguet A., Wegner W., van Acken D. & Koeberl C (2016). Target rocks, impact glasses and melt rocks from the Lonar crater, India: Highly Siderophile Element systematics and Sr-Nd-Os isotopic signatures. Meteoritics and planetary sciences 51, 1323-1339.

[37]* van Acken D., Hoffmann J.E., Schorscher J.H.D., Schulz T., Heuser A. & Luguet A. (2016). Mantle sources of High-Al komatiites from the Mesoarchaean Quebra Osso Group, Minas Gerais, Brazil: trace elements, HSE systematics and Os isotopic signatures. Chem Geol. 422, 108-121.

[36] Luguet A & Reisberg L (2016). Highly Siderophile Element and 187Osmium signatures in non-cratonic basalt-hosted peridotite xenoliths: Unravelling the origin and evolution of the Post-Archean Lithospheric Mantle. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 2016, v. 81 “Highly siderophile and strongly chalcophile elements in high temperature geochemistry and cosmochemistry” Eds (J. Day & J. Harvey). pp 305-367

[35] Lorand JP & Luguet A (2016). Chalcophile/siderophile elements in mantle rocks: trace elements in trace minerals. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 2016, v. 81 “Highly siderophile and strongly chalcophile elements in high temperature geochemistry and cosmochemistry” Eds (J. Day & J. Harvey). pp 441-488

[34]* Wainwright AN, Luguet A, FonsecaROC & Pearson DG (2015).Investigating metasomatic effects on the 187Os isotopic signature: A case study on micrometric base metal sulfides in metasomatised peridotite from the Letlhakane kimberlite (Botswana). Lithos 232, 35-48.

[33]* Coggon J, Luguet A, Fonseca R, Lorand JP, Heuser A & Appel P (2015). Understanding Re-Os systematics and model ages in metamorphosed Archean ultramafic rocks: A single mineral to whole-rock investigation. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 167, 205-240.

[32] Harvey J, König S & Luguet A (2015). The effects of melt depletion and metasomatism on highly siderophile and strongly chalcophile elements: S-Se-Te-PGE systematics of peridotite xenoliths from Kilbourne Hole, New Mexico. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 166, 210-233.

[31] Luguet A, Behrens M, Pearson DG, König S & Herwartz D (2015). Significance of the whole-rock Re-Os ages in cryptically and modally metasomatised cratonic peridotites. Constraints from the HSE-Se-Te systematics. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 164, 441-463.

[30] König S, Luguet A, Lorand JP, Lissner M & PearsonDG (2015) Reply to the comment on “A non-primitive origin of near-chondritic S–Se–Te ratios in mantle peridotites: Implications for the Earth's late accretionary history. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 385, 110–121.

[29] König S, Lorand JP, Lissner M, Bragagni A & Luguet A (2015) Mineralogical control of Selenium, Tellurium and some highly siderophile elements in the Earth’s mantle: Evidence from mineral separates of ultra-depleted mantle residues. Chem Geol. 396, 16-24.

[28] Lissner M, König S, Luguet A, le Roux PJ, Schuth S, Heuser A & le Roex AP (2014). Selenium and tellurium systematics in MORBs form the southern Mid-Atlantic Ridge (47-50ºS). Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 144, 379-402.

[27] König S, Lorand JP, Luguet A & Pearson DG (2014). Selenium-tellurium systematics and the origin of near-chondritic Se/Te ratios in mantle-derived peridotites. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 385, 110-121.

[26]* Coggon JA, Luguet A, Nowell GM & Appel PWU (2013). Hadean mantle melting recorded by southwest Greenland chromitite 186Os. Nature Geoscience 6, 871-874.

[25] Lorand JP, Luguet A & Alard O (2013). Platinum-group element systematics and petrogenetic processing of the continental upper mantle: A review. Lithos 164-167, 2-21.

[24] Fonseca R, Laurenz V, Mallmann G, Luguet A, Höhne N & Jochum KP (2012). New constraints on the genesis and long-term stability of Os-rich alloys in the Earth's mantle. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. 87, 227-242.

[23] König S, Luguet A, Lorand JP, Wombacher F & Lissner M (2012). Selenium and tellurium systematics of the Earth’s mantle inferred from high precision analyses of ultra-depleted orogenic peridotites. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 86, 354-366.

[22] Wittig N, Webb M, Pearson DG, Dale CW, Ottley CJ, Hutchinson M, Jensen SM & Luguet A (2010). Formation of the North Atlantic Craton: Timing and mechanisms constrained from Re-Os isotope and PGE data of peridotite xenoliths from S.W. Greenland. Chem. Geol. 276, 166-187.

[21] Lorand JP, Alard O & Luguet A (2010). Platinum Group Element micro-nuggets in Lherz and Freychinede orogenic lherzolites (Northeastern Pyrenees, France): heritage from an ancient refractory lithospheric mantle. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 289, 298-310.

[20] König S, Münker C, Schuth S, Luguet A, Hoffmann JE & Kuduon J (2010). Boninites as windows into trace element mobility in subduction zones. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 74, 684-704.

[19] Luguet A, Jaques AL, Pearson DG, Smith CB, Bulanova G, Roffey S, Rayner M & Lorand JP (2009). An integrated petrological, geochemical and Re-Os isotope study of peridotite xenoliths from the Argyle lamproite, W. Australia: implications for cratonic diamond occurrence. Lithos 112S, 1096-1108.

[18] Reisberg L, Dauphas N, Luguet A, Pearson DG & Galino R (2009). Nucleosynthetic osmium isotope anomalies in acid leachates of the Murchison meteorite. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 277, 334-344.

[17] Lorand JP, Luguet A & Alard O (2008). Platinum Group Elements: A new set of Key Tracers for the Earth’s Interior. Elements Vol 4, 247-252.

[16] Luguet A, Pearson DG, Nowell GM, Coggon JA, Dreher ST, Spetsius ZV & Parman SW (2008). Enriched Pt-Re-Os isotope systematics in plume lavas explained by metasomatic sulfides. Science 319, 453-456.

[15] Luguet A, Nowell GM & Pearson DG (2008). 184Os/188Os and 186Os/188Os measurements by negative thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (NTIMS): Effects of interfering element and mass fractionation corrections on data accuracy and precision. Chem. Geol. 248 « Highly Siderophile Element Geochemistry » Special Issue (eds Luguet A, Pearson D.G., Selby D., Brenan J. & Meisel T.). 342-362.

[14] Dale C, Luguet A, Macpherson C, Pearson DG & Hickey-Vargas R (2008). Extreme platinum-group element fractionation and variable Os isotope compositions in Philippine Sea Plate basalts: tracing mantle source heterogeneity. Chem. Geol. 248 « Highly Siderophile Element Geochemistry » Special Issue (eds Luguet A, Pearson D.G., Selby D., Brenan J. & Meisel T.). 213-238.

[13] Lorand JP, Luguet A, Alard O, Bezos A & Meisel T (2008). Abundance and distribution of platinum-group elements in orogenic lherzolites; a case study in FON-B 93, (Fontête Rouge, French Pyrénées). Chem. Geol. 248 « Highly Siderophile Element Geochemistry » Special Issue (eds Luguet A, Pearson D.G., Selby D., Brenan J. & Meisel T.). 174-194.

[12] Nowell GM, Luguet A, Pearson DG & Horstwood MA (2008). Precise and accurate 186Os/188Os and 187Os/188Os measurements by Multi-Collector Plasma Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) part I: solution analyses. Chem. Geol. 248 « Highly Siderophile Element Geochemistry » Special Issue (eds Luguet A, Pearson D.G., Selby D., Brenan J. & Meisel T.). 363-393.

[11] Nowell GM, Pearson DG, Parman SW, Luguet A & Hanski E (2008). Precise and accurate 186Os/188Os and 187Os/188Os measurements by Multi-Collector Plasma Ionisation Mass Spectrometry, part II: The application of laser ablation MC-ICPMS to single-grain Pt-Os and Re-Os geochronology in platinum group alloy grains. Chem. Geol. 248 « Highly Siderophile Element Geochemistry » Special Issue (eds Luguet A, Pearson D.G., Selby D., Brenan J. & Meisel T.). 394-426.

[10] Luguet A, Shirey SB, Lorand JP, Horan MF & Carlson RW (2007). Residual platinum-group minerals from highly depleted harzburgites of the Lherz massif (France) and their role in HSE fractionation of the mantle. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 71, 3082-3097. Highlighted in Editor’s Choice of Science (Vol 316, p1395).

[9] Alard O, Luguet A, Pearson NJ, Griffin WL, Lorand JP, Gannoun A, Burton K & O'Reilly SY (2005). In situ Os isotopes in abyssal peridotites bridge the isotopic gap between MORBs and their source mantle. Nature 436, 1005-1008.

[8] Luguet A, Lorand JP, Alard O. & Cottin J.Y. (2004). A multi-technique study of platinum group element systematic in some Ligurian ophiolitic peridotites, In « Highly Siderophile Elements and Igneous processes », Reisberg, Lorand, Alard, Ohnenstetter (eds.). Chem. Geol. 208, 175-194.

[7] Luguet A, Lorand JP & Seyler M (2003). Sulfide petrology and highly siderophile element geochemistry of abyssal peridotites: A coupled study in samples from the Kane Fracture Zone (Mark area 45°W 23°20'N, atlantic ocean). Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 67, 1553-1570.

[6] Lorand JP, Alard O, Luguet A & Keays RR (2003). Sulfur and selenium systematics of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle beneath the Massif Central (France). Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 67, 4137-4151.

[5] Gros M., Lorand J.P. & Luguet A (2002). Analysis of platinum group elements and gold in geological materials using NiS fire assay and Te-coprecipitation: the NiS dissolution step revised. Chem Geol 185, 179-190.

[4] Luguet A, Alard O, Lorand JP, Pearson NG, Ryan C & O'Reilly SY (2001). Laser-ablation microprobe (LAM)-ICPMS unravels the highly siderophile element geochemistry of the oceanic mantle. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 189, 285-294.

[3] Seyler M, Toplis M, Lorand JP, Luguet A & Cannat M (2001). Clinopyroxene microtextures reveal incompletely extracted melts in abyssal peridotites, Geology, 29(2), 155-158.

[2] Luguet A & Lorand JP (1999). Fe-Ni-Cu sulphides of abyssal peridotites from the MARK area (Mid-Atlantic ridge, 20-24°N). C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris, (Earth & Planetary Sciences), 329, 637-644.


[1] Luguet A & Lorand JP (1998). Supergene weathering and sulphur contents of basalt-hosted mantle xenoliths: an appraisal from Montferrier lherzolites (Languedoc, France). C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris, (Earth & Planetary Sciences), 327, 519-525.


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